My primary research interests center on the evolution and efficacy of amphibian antipredator mechanisms. These include: toxins, coloration, tail autotomy, morphology, and behavior. I am especially interested in individual differences as they affect survival. My students and I are looking at coevolution of tetrodotoxin bearing newts and their predators, using both field and laboratory trials to test hypotheses. We are also interested in the presence and function of tetrodotoxin in other groups of animals.
Edgehouse, Michael, Leigh C. Latta IV, Edmund D. Brodie III, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2014. Interspecific aggression and habitat partitioning in garter snakes. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86208. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086208
Hopkins, Gareth R., Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. & Susannah S. French. 2014. Developmental and evolutionary history affect survival in stressful environments. PLoS ONE 9(4): e95174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095174
Stokes, Amber N., Peter K. Ducey, Lorin Neuman-Lee, Charles T. Hanifin, Susannah S. French, Michael E. Pfrender, Edmund D. Brodie III, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2014. Bipalium adventitium and Bipalium kewense: the first terrestrial invertebrates with tetrodotoxin. PLoS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100718
McGlothlin, Joel W., John P. Chuckalovcak, Daniel E. Janes, Scott V. Edwards, Chris R. Feldman, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., Michael E. Pfrender & Edmund D. Brodie III. 2014. Parallel evolution of tetrodotoxin resistance in three voltage-gated sodium channel genes in the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis. Molecular Biology and Evolution. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu237 http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/09/09/molbev.msu237.full.pdf+html
Gall, Brian G., Amber N. Stokes, Jory J. Pett, Kari L. Spivey, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2014. Tetrodotoxin concentrations within a clutch and across embryonic development in the eggs of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). Toxicon. 90: 249-254. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.08.060
Wilson, Natasha J., Amber N. Stokes, Gareth R. Hopkins, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Craig R. Williams. 2014. Functional and physiological resistance of crayfish to amphibian toxins: tetrodotoxin resistance in the white river crayfish Procambarus acutus. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 92: 939–945. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2014-0128
Campbell, Jonathan A., Jeffrey W. Streicher, Christian L. Cox, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr . 2014. A new salamander of the genus Chiropterotriton (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the Sierra Madre Oriental of Tamaulipas, Mexico. South American Journal of Herpetology. 9:228-234. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2994/SAJH-D-14-00042.1
Neuman-Lee, Lorin A., Amber N. Stokes, Sydney Greenfield, G. R. Hopkins, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., and Susannah S. French. 2015. The role of corticosterone and toxicity in the antipredator behavior of the Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa). General and Comparative Endocrinology 213:59-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.12.006
Stokes, Amber N., Andrew M. Ray, Mark W. Buktenica, Brian G. Gall, Elva Paulson, Dale Paulson, Susannah S. French, Edmund D. Brodie III, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2015. Otter predation on Taricha granulosa and variation in tetrodotoxin levels with elevation. Northwestern Naturalist. 96 (1): 13-21. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1898/NWN13-19.1
Smith, Geoffrey D., Gareth R. Hopkins, Shabnam Mohammadi, Heather M. Skinner, Tyler Hansen, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., and Susannah S. French. 2015. Effects of temperature on embryonic and early larval growth and development in the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa). Journal of Thermal Biology, 51: 89-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtherbio.2015.03.010
Jared, Carlos, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Marta Maria Antoniazzi, Vanessa Aparecida Mendes, Kátia Cristina Barbaro, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2015. Venomous frogs use heads as weapons. Current Biology. 25: 2166-2170. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.061
Feldman, C. R., A. M. Durso, C. T. Hanifin, M. E. Pfrender, P. K. Ducey, A N Stokes, K E Barnett, E. D. Brodie III, E. D. Brodie Jr. 2015. Is there more than one way to skin a newt? Convergent toxin resistance in snakes is not due to a common genetic mechanism. Heredity. doi: 10.1038/hdy.2015.73.
Brodie, Edmund D. III, and Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2015. Predictably convergent evolution of sodium channels in the arms race between predators and prey. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 86: 48-57. DOI:10.1159/000435905.
Mohammadi, Shabnam; Edmund D Brodie, Jr., Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Alan H Savitzky. 2016. Mutations to the cardiotonic steroid binding site of Na+/K+-ATPase are associated with high level of resistance to gamabufotalin in a natricine snake. Toxicon in press. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2016.02.019
Hague, Michael T.J., Leleña A. Avila, Charles T. Hanifin, Andrew Snedden, Amber N. Stokes, Edmund D. Brodie Jr., Edmund D. Brodie III. 2016. Toxicity and population structure of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) outside the range of an arms race with resistant predators. Evolution and Ecology. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.2068/full
Neuman-Lee, Lorin A., Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., Tyler Hansen, Edmund D. Brodie III, and Susannah S. French. 2016. Comparing the natural and anthropogenic sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin and indoxacarb in gartersnake. Experimental Zoology Part A. DOI: 10.1002/jez.2012
Hopkins, Gareth R., Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., Lorin A. Neuman-Lee, Shabnam Mohammadi, George A. Brusch IV, Zoë M. Hopkins, and Susannah S. French. 2016. Physiological responses to salinity vary with proximity to the ocean in a coastal amphibian. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 89:322-330. Doi: 10.1086/687292
McGlothlin, Joel W., Megan E. Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, Edmund D. Brodie, Jr., Michael E. Pfrender, and Edmund D. Brodie III. 2016. Historically contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistance. Current Biology. 26: 1616-1621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.056.